Abstract | ORAL CANCER IN UKRAINE: MAIN RISK FACTORS

Authors: Hovornyan Serhiy, Ivashchuk Oleksandr
Scientific coordinators: Ivashchuk Oleksandr
Department of Oncology and Radiology
Bukovinian State Medical University

Background. Oral cancer is the eleventh most common cancer worldwide. The epidemiological data from various regions in the last decade confirms a rising incidence in many countries. Incidence rates are much higher in regions like Ukraine where they account for up to 50% of all malignant tumors. Worldwide, oral cancer has one of the lowest overall of the 5- and 10-year survival rates – 56% and 41%, respectively. High rate of this cancer can be associated with such risk factors as smoking and alcohol and other bad habits, as well as DNA oncogenic viruses.


Body. The analysis of main risk factors show that Ukraine is one of 15 countries worldwide with a heavy burden of tobacco-related ill health. According to World Health Organization’s standardized estimate of smoking prevalence, 44.2% of men, 9.9% of women, and 25.4% of Ukraine’s adult population overall are daily tobacco smokers.


Results. The Global Health Observatory (GHO) data shows that the total alcohol per capita (15+ years old population) consumption, among drinkers (in litres of pure alcohol) in Ukraine are 30.0 for males, 11.2 – females, 20.3 – both sexes. According to this data Ukraine is one of 10 countries with highest consumption level of alcoholic beverage worldwide.
More than 500,000 patients in the world are estimated to have oral cancer with approximately 389,000 new cases per annum. According to the latest WHO data published in May 2014 oral cancer deaths ranks Ukraine №23 in the world. The latest data of National Cancer Registry of Ukraine (published in 2017) show that the number of cancer patients per situs are:
• Lip (C00) total patients = 12433 (9384 – males, 3049 – females), the prevalence rates are 34.4 о /оооо of population (55.9 о /оооо – males, 15.8 о /оооо – females), new cases – 650, death cases – 129;
• Oral cavity (C01-C08, C46.2) total patients = 8760 (5528 – males, 3232 – females), the prevalence rates are 24.2 о /оооо of population (32.9 о /оооо – males, 16.7 о /оооо – females) new cases – 2323, death cases – 1512;
• Pharynx (C09-C14) total patients = 6363 (4920 – males, 1443 – females), the
prevalence rates are 17.6 о /оооо of population (29.3 о /оооо – males, 7.5о /оооо – females) new cases – 2304, death cases – 1572.


Conclusion. Oral cancer is a global health problem. In the last decade an increase was observed in the percentage of young patients. The trends of oral cancer risk factors in Ukraine show a high risk for development of this disease as well as high number of cancer patients and mortality level in country. Sustained, multilevel campaigns modeled on tobacco and alcohol controls are suggested. Further epidemiologic research, early detection and screening methods are identified as important directions for public health policy in Ukraine and worldwide.

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